[ China Agricultural Machinery Industry News
] Tea is a national drink, but also an important carrier of Chinese culture heritage. At present, China's tea planting area is more than 42 million mu, with an annual total output value of more than 150 billion yuan. It is one of the pillar industries of 22 major producing provinces and the main economic source of tea farmers. The terrain of China's tea gardens is complex (multiplely distributed in hilly and mountainous areas), which is difficult to mechanize. The level of comprehensive mechanization is less than 10%. The cost of tea garden management and tea picking labor exceeds 60%, and the production efficiency is low.
China's tea garden production mechanization is welcoming new breakthroughs
The comprehensive competitiveness and sustainable development of the tea industry have been severely constrained, and it is extremely urgent to realize the mechanization of tea garden production.
Recently, the Nanjing Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture held a tea ceremony demonstration demonstration at the Tea Expo Park in Jiangsu Province. At the meeting, more than 30 newly developed tea garden production machinery, including tea garden cultivation, pruning, picking, plant protection, etc., were covered, covering the whole process of tea garden production, marking that China's tea garden production is entering the era of â€œmachine substitutionâ€.
Since 2013, 8 units including the Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture have carried out research and development of tea garden mechanization technology and equipment. According to Xiao Hongru, researcher of the research team and researcher of Nanjing Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture, the team aims at improving the mechanization technology of tea garden production in China through theoretical and technological innovation, equipment creation and application promotion.
â€œThe technical model of the multi-purpose mechanical operation of the flat-floor inter-row, the ultra-low-gap operation technology mode of the gentle slope, the smooth and mechanized operation mode of the steep slope, the three-class typical tea garden full-scale mechanized production technology model and equipment system.â€ The basic characteristics are not the same. The team proposed different tea garden mechanical operation technology modes and the corresponding "power platform +" machine configuration mode.
Xiao Hongru introduced that in the face of problems such as large resistance to soil cultivation in the tea garden, lack of applicable equipment, and deep application of fertilizer, they created the â€œneedle-typeâ€ bionic farming theory, innovative farming institutions, and created biomimetic farming equipment. The machine simulates the principle of human excavation, which optimizes the excavation trajectory and the angle of the soil, and is easy to break the ground; innovative design of the crank-link bionic farming mechanism and the micro-arc-shaped radius of curvature "needle" ploughing teeth, small excavation resistance, fragile soil The depth of cultivation was increased from 5~8 cm to 23.3 cm in manual operation, without re-cultivation or ploughing. This achievement has filled the gap in the deep-fertilization and fertilization technology and equipment of the tea plantation soil in China.
In response to the green prevention and control of tea production, the team innovated the green control technology of pest negative pressure, created a negative pressure insect catching equipment, and the insect catching rate reached 70%, providing new technical equipment support for the development of green tea industry.
â€œIn response to the low rate of traditional tea picking, our team has also innovated the bionic tea picking technology and created a cross-propelled self-propelled tea picker and intelligent tea picking components.â€ He added that the team created â€œlimited selectivityâ€. "Using the theory of picking, establishing a statistical model of new shoots of tea trees, determining the location of new picking and picking surface; designing a bionic leaf-feeding mechanism and a multi-layered working mechanism for controlling the shearing posture of new shoots, and integrating the self-propelled mining Tea machine. Compared with the traditional tea picking machine, the tea picking rate increased from 60.4% to 77%, which made the summer and autumn tea resources fully utilized, and the comprehensive benefit of the tea garden increased by about 40%. In addition, it has also innovated the young shoot recognition, positioning technology and mechanical handkerchief trajectory contour control technology, created intelligent tea picking parts, the head recognition rate reached 90%, and the picking speed exceeded 2400 per hour, providing intelligent tea picking. Key technical support.
It is understood that since 2013, the Nanjing Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture has carried out research and development of tea garden mechanization technology and equipment. The three types of tea garden operation power platforms and working components currently developed have been mass-produced. The annual sales of tea garden production machinery developed from 2014 to 2015 reached 102.24 million yuan, and it was applied to 210,13 million mu of 22 major tea producing provinces nationwide, accumulating a total increase of 911 million yuan for tea farms and tea farmers.
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